Tuesday, May 11, 2010

The White Test. . . 5 Years in the Making

I've been preparing this blog entry for about 5 years.

In the aforementioned year of yore, I performed a thoroughly unscientific White Test wherein different brands of oil paint were applied to a little panel and allowed to cure so as to observe their aged properties.  I was focusing primarily on how much they yellowed.  The results led to some concern so I broadened the test to include more brands/kinds of oil paint, and now . . . after two years of drying. . . I give you the results of this expanded White Test (or Off-White Test, as it is known in-house.)

PAINTS TESTED:
Winsor & Newton (Artist Oil Colors)
    Titanium White  37 ml
     Zinc White  37ml
     Flake White #1  37 ml
     Foundation White  37 ml
     Cremnitz White  37 ml
     Transparent White  120 ml
Winsor & Newton (Griffin Alkyd)
    Titanium White  37 ml
     Mixed White  37 ml
Gamblin (Artist Oil Colors)
    Titanium White  37 ml
     Radiant White  37 ml
     Titanium Zinc White  37 ml
     Zinc White  37 ml
     Quick Dry White  37 ml
     Flake White Replacement  37 ml
     Flake White  37 ml
Grumbacher (Artist Oil Colors Pretested)
    Titanium White (soft form)  1.25 fl. oz.
     Titanium White (original form)  1.25 fl. oz.
     Zinc White  37 ml
     Flake White  37 ml
Holbein (Extra Fine Artist Oil Colors)
     Ceramic White  50 ml
     Zinc White  50 ml
Lukas 1862 (Finest Artist Oil Colors)
     Opaque White  37 ml
     Zinc White  37 ml
     Titanium White  37 ml
Old Holland (Classic Oil Colors)
     Mixed White #2 (zinc & titanium)  40 ml
     Titanium White  40 ml
     Cremnitz White  40 ml
     Flake White #1 Cremnitz & Zinc  40 ml
Vasari  (Classic Artist Oil Color)
     Titanium Zinc White  40 ml
     Zinc White  40 ml
     Titanium White  40 ml
Permalba (Artist Oil Color)
     Original White  150 ml
     Zinc White  37 ml
     Titanium White  37 ml
     Iridescent White  37 ml
Chroma (Archival Permanently Flexible Artists Oils)
     Titanium White  40 ml
Chroma (Professional Artists Oils)
     Tinting White (Pearl/Titanium)  40 ml
C.A.S. Alkyd Pro
     White Luster  70 ml
     Titanium White  70 ml
Rembrandt (Extra Fine Oil Colors)
     Transparent White  40 ml
  
The Entire Chart


Flake Whites

Quick Dry Whites

Supposedly White Whites

Titanium Whites 1

Titanium Whites 2

Titanium Zinc Whites

Zinc Whites









Transparent Whites


Specialty "Whites"



THE WINNERS (Still White):
 • Permalba (Artist Oil Color) - Original White
 • Lukas 1862 (Finest Artist Oil Colors) - Titanium White
 • Grumbacher (Artist Oil Colors Pretested) - Titanium White (soft form)

PRACTICALLY ORANGE:
 • Gamblin (Artist Oil Colors) - Radiant White
 • Grumbacher (Artist Oil Colors Pretested) - Flake White
 • Permalba (Artist Oil Color) - Zinc White
 • Permalba (Artist Oil Color) - Titanium White

LEMONY YELLOW:
 • Winsor & Newton (Artist Oil Colors) - Cremnitz White
 • Winsor & Newton (Artist Oil Colors) - Transparent White
 • Rembrandt (Extra Fine Oil Colors) - Transparent White



VERDICT:
The culprit seems to be the vehicle (or binder) used.  Since safflower oil yellows less than linseed oil, I'm sticking with whites made with safflower oil.

(All of these paints are applied to the same gessoed linen panel, so there should be no inconsistency in the ground.  We were also careful to wear gloves when touching the surface, so that there would be no inadvertent addition of oil from fingers to confuse the results.  No animals were harmed through the testing of these paints - including rabbits.  Obviously overly optimistic, I left plenty of space for additional paints to be added eventually - feel free to submit any requests.)

208 comments:

  1. Excelent test, very useful. Old Holland always seems to look good, was that safflower too? I'd be interested in how walnut oil behaves, as I was thinking of using Michael Harding' Cremnitz white in walnut.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I've been using Harding's cremnitz walnut and love it's application. I too would be very interested to know how walnut measures against linseed.

      This is a fantastic study! Thanks for your work and information!

      Linda Lee Nelson

      Delete
    2. Toko jati mempunyai produk kursi tamu sofa duco mewah ukiran merupakan salah satu perabot ruang  tamu yang sangat anda cari untuk melengkapi kebutuhan rumah baru anda dengan nuansa mewah nan elegant. ada juga produk serupa Kursi teras jati set terbaru ini tentu berbeda dengan kursi untuk ruang tamu seperti sofa misalnya. Selain lebih simpel, jumlahnya pun tidak terlalu banyak. Ada pula furniture untuk ruang kamar yaitu set tempat tidur minimalis dengan bentuk yang unik dan cantik,cocok di taruh di ruang tidur dengan konsep apapun, bagi kebanyakan orang kamar bukan sebatas untuk tidur. tempat tidur tingkat kami sediakan untuk anda yang ingin memberi kenyamanan kepada anak-anak anda. Siapa saja pasti ingin memberi yang terbaik buat si buah hati dan sudah menyiapkan produk furniture minimalis yang terbaik untuk mengisi ruang tidur bagi si buah hati tempat tidur ini akan sangat berguna sekali bagi anda untuk melengkapi furniture rumah anda. kursi jati minimalis adalah furniture yang perlu untuk anda miliki untuk menerima tamu agar tamu merasa nyaman saat berkunjung ke rumah anda. set kursi sofa tamu kayu jati adalah sebuah produk hasil pengrajin mebel kayu jati jepara, furniture jepara terkenal akan keindahan model dan bentuk kursinya, kualitas kursi sofa jepara terkenal akan kualitas rangka kayunya sebagai bahan dasar. lemari jam hias jati brawijaya standart kami menggunakan mesin Jam Jung Han. dan untuk informasi lengkapnnya.

      Mebel di jakarta adalah salah satu target pasar kami karena banyaknya permintaan keburuhan furniture dan produk yang kami tawarkan adalah kursi sofa tamu mewah italian terbaru furniture sofa yang memberikan pengaruh yang besar terhadap Suasana nyaman disaat istirahat atau sedang duduk. adapun juga set kursi sofa tamu merupakan sebuah furniture yang wajib ada dalam ruang tamu anda karena selain berguna untuk melengkapi dan memperindah ruang tamu anda, tentang Tempat tidur minimalis dalam proses pembuatannya sangat kami perhatikan, mulai dari pemilihan bahan sampai dengan proses pengiriman sangat diteliti dengan ketat, set kursi tamu jati terbaru adalah furniture yang di tempatkan pada salah satu ruangan rumah yaitu ruang tamu, mendekorasi ruang tamu rumah agar menjadi lebih rapi tentu keinginan semua orang. kami menjual furniture kursi teras minimalis terbaru kayu jati  ​adalah produk furniture kayu  minimalis terbaru yang di hasilkan dari pemikiran yang kreatif dari para pengrajin asli jepara yang sudah berpengalaman. untuk update harga kunjungi kami.

      Delete
  2. Good suggestion Alun. I'll add it to the list. Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Thank you so much for this information!

    ReplyDelete
  4. Hi Bill -
    That's lined up for the next batch to be tested. I have several brands that use walnut oil - we'll see how they go. I'm planning on posting the results annually.

    ReplyDelete
  5. I'm requesting Rembrandt paints and W&N Artisan paints. Thank you!

    ReplyDelete
  6. I wonder how M. Graham whites would do since the walnut oil is their binder.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Excellent work. It appears you have taken into account all variables that could influence your findings. Was there a 100% positive correlation between the yellowing and the type of oil used as the binder?

    ReplyDelete
  8. Great Post!
    I have always been under the impression that all alkyd paints use safflower oil. Is that true? If so, would that generally make alkyds superior to traditional oils in terms of resistance to yellowing?

    ReplyDelete
  9. This is incredibly useful. Thanks so much for taking the time to blog about it.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Hi Deborah - I'm working on a comprehensive listing of all the properties of the paint tested. There will be quite a few new paints in the next batch and I'd like to organize the info to see about such correlations.

    I'm planning on reposting this test annually, to see how the paints continue to age. More info will be available on the next post.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Dear Anonymous - Alkyd paints didn't fare so well on the test. Alkyd paints are made with alkyd resin which is synthetic. If it is derived from safflower oil I don't know, but it is not safflower oil. There is at least one new alkyd that I'll be testing in my next batch, so stay tuned.

    ReplyDelete
  12. I am very disturbed by this white test. I just bought a ton of Gamblin Radiant white because it had safflower oil as the medium. Does this test mean that the pigment is faulty or is the safflower oil yellowing? Could your paint be an old formula? I need to find my receipt!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I have Gamblin whites on my test board and it only took 18 months to 2 years for them to turn orangey-peach . On my board are Lukas 1862 Ti white and All Art Spectrum whites for 7 years. They are still fresh today. Blockx whites stay white also. The Michael Harding's are a big disappointment_all are turning some version of creamy yellow in under 4 years. The Rublevs are all yellowing except for the mica white. It has been known for at least 2000 yr that you have to wash the mucilage out of the oil if you don't want it yellowing. These paint manufacturers don't want to spend money on producing a superior product. The solution is calcitesunoil.Com ...by Louis Velazquez to stop all this nonsense.

      Delete
  13. Flake white will yellow because it becomes more transparent as it dries. It is of course, in part, its transparency that many artists prize. This is also true of the transparency and the cool tone of zinc white.

    Titanium is so dense and opaque that it will remain whiter longer; however it kills colors.

    Safflower oil will remain clear; however it forms a weak film and sometimes will hardly dry at all, just turn to a gelatinous mess, unless drying agents are added.

    Drying agents add their own problems to paint films. I stay away from them.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Dear Morgen - just to be clear, are you disturbed by the white test or by it's results? ; )
    As for the Radiant White - the color shift also disturbed me. I bought about 10 tubes of it, and told numerous students to buy it, after believing that the the Radiant White was "formulated for painters who want a "refrigerator white" white." as Gamblin states on it's website. According to this test the people at Gamblin need to turn on their kitchen lights - their white refrigerators are actually a very light creamsicle color. As for the binder, it is poppy oil, not safflower oil, that is used:

    "Radiant White: Texturally, Radiant White is the shortest (most buttery), brightest, whitest Gamblin white - excellent for abstract paintings and a good choice if the color white is critical. It's bound with poppy oil, which does not dry as fast as linseed oil.

    Pigment: Titanium Dioxide (PW6)
    Vehicle: Poppy oil
    Lightfastness I, Series 2, OPAQUE, MSDS"

    I now have many tubes of the paint that I only use in situations where the color shift won't be noticeable or is desired.

    I actually bought a new tube of Radiant White last week to use on the next batch, to see if there is a difference from the first test. Let's hope Gamblin has improved it's "brightest, whitest" white. I have nothing against the company - I use many of their products and have for years- but at this point, Radiant White is a misnomer.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Years back I ran a similar test, without as many brands and Gamblin's titanium and zinc whites yellowed in about 3 weeks! Needless to say I don't use their whites-- What about Graham paints?

      Delete
  15. My friends have conducted similar tests and it's always interesting too see the results. They always vary from brand to brand, sometimes even from one batch of paint to another. I use OH flake whites for years and am very pleased with them.
    As some people pointed out, safflower or poppy oil do not yellow as linseed oil does, but have other undesirable properties which may have a seriously detrimental effect to the paint film. Besides, titanium and zinc whites are no match to the flake white. Therefore, I stick with OH flake and cremnitz whites ground in linseed oil and use titanium white only for highlights or small areas where such a cool white is absolutely necessary (admittedly, I found that very few paintings require it).
    Besides, by exposing the painting to the sun for a couple of hours, one can always bleach the darkened whites.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Thank you so much for this test. My new tubes are made with safflower oil and Titanium Dioxide. I hope the new formulation won't turn the way the poppy oil formula did. That orange color shift is shocking. I hope my paintings don't turn orange!

    I need to go to the paint store and get me some decent white. What are you going to buy from now on? I liked the Lukas 1862 and the Old Holland mixed.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Thanks for posting your results! Wondering if any of the companies involved, such as Gamblin whose product I used to trust, will comment on this test?

    osweetnature

    ReplyDelete
  18. I add my thanks to those already posted. This is great information.

    I would be very interested in seeing results for the various whites that Utrecht makes, because I use mostly Utrecht paints and know many other artists who do as well.

    Raspberry

    ReplyDelete
  19. Valentino - Cool painting in your April 21st post. All technical data is welcome.

    Morgen - that's great news. Hopefully the new paint performs as expected.

    Karla - I hope so. The purpose of this test is to know what the results of the products will be. I would think that the companies would care about this too - and a real-world test should be info they can use.

    As Morgen mentioned, Gamblin may have reformulated their Radiant White. They may want to clarify this so that we don't judge their current product on past formulations. Their website still says poppy oil, so they should probably start there.

    ReplyDelete
  20. Thanks for posting this helpful topic. The Lukas 1862 paints are said to use "pharmaceutical quality linseed and sunflower oils," which would be consistent with both Gottsegen and Mayer's Handbook which describe the benefits of refining and lowering the acidity of linseed oil, which causes the yellowing. Sunflower oils, however, are rated below poppyseed oil which is rated below linseed oil. Mayer describes poppyseed oil as forming "a film that is weaker and less permanent than linseed oil...it is better not to use it in amounts greater than 25 percent (with linseed oil).

    In Mayer's "The Painter's Craft," safflower oil is described as follows: "Safflower oil began to be employed in artists' colors in the late 1950s; it is a satisfactory and acceptable replacement for linseed oil although it can be rated a little bit below linseed in all-around properties. The results of accelerated laboratory tests show it to be slightly inferior to alkali-refined linseed oil in color retention, in retention of flexibility, and in toughness and durability of film, but for practical purposes these small differences should not disqualify it for use in high-quality oil colors. Safflower oil has a reputation in industry for being one of the best non-yellowing oils - better than linseed oil in this respect - but this is true only of its use as an ingredient of mediums like the oil-modified alkyd resins rather than of its use as a vehicle for artists' oil colors.

    "Walnut oil is similarly inferior to linseed oil in all-around paint qualities; some investigators rate it above, and some below, poppy oil. Walnut oil will grow rancid on storage and develop a strong odor, as is common with other nut oils; its properties as a paint medium are believed to be thereby impaired." - Mayer's Handbook, 5th ed. Gottsegen adds that "the drying process quickly overtakes this minor defect."

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. How does that book compare to, "The Artists Handbook of Materials and Techniques"?

      Delete
  21. Thanks Jonathan.
    As for the technical procedure of my painting you mentioned, I executed it on linen canvas, primed with Golden Gesso. In order to achieve a textured surface which I wanted, I glued rice paper pieces (mostly along the compositional axis) on it, using Golden regular gel. Then I covered the whole surface with another layer of gesso, slightly tinted with Golden burnt sienna. I draw the outline of the main shapes using Prismacolor pencils and proceeded with painting. The underpainting was executed in complementary or near complementary colors (in darker or lighter values than the envisioned final layer). However, some areas underpainted with those complementary colors looked rather charming, so I left them as they were, that is - I overpainted other areas, but not those.
    Horseman figure (St. Grisogono) was painted entirely in acrylics. I did not use oil paints on that area. The whole shape was underpainted in flatly apllied burnt sienna (no tonal modelling) over which I painted lights with gold acrylic paint, which was enhanced (overpainted) with thin layer of burnt sienna where necessary, for a more pleasing look. I purposely mixed different painting approaches for different areas.

    ReplyDelete
  22. I've been using Old Holland Titanium. From your test, it looks like it's not the best, nor the worst? I am so grateful for your research and posting. This is excellent for the art supply industry. As painters increase their skills, they should be demanding higher quality from the manufacturers. This is so good for them to see. I notice some high-end labels there, too. No way to actually know how high-end they are without such tests. Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  23. Execellent post Jonathan - I've referenced it on two of my blogs
    * Making A Mark (see 6th June 2010 - Who's made a mark this week?)
    * and Making A Mark Reviews (see Jonathan Linton's Review of the lightfastness of White Oil Paint) with proper accreditation to you and links back to this post.

    Do please keep in touch when you've got more of the same to announce!

    ReplyDelete
  24. How alarming!
    Thanks a bunch for this. Though the results are very disturbing. I've come to trust Gamblin highly but am now having my doubts.

    I'd be interested to see how LeFranc's Titanium White and also the higher end less commercial paints, like Vasari, Willimsburg, Robert Doak and Natural Pigments, Flake and Titaniums hold up.

    Additionally the inner skeptic in me wonders about how accurately the accelerated testing is replicating centuries of normal exposure. And that the testing may be causing affects that wouldn't otherwise occur. After all, the Old Masters must have surely had inferior refining capabilities yet tons of their painting's whites still hold true.

    Even still the results are very informative and interesting.

    Thanks
    Ben

    ReplyDelete
  25. Amazing and interesting results! Yes, I am surprised.

    That said, isn't the real proof of the pudding how it holds up in a painting? When you look at one of your paintings that may have an area of color that is dominantly white, so you see them yellowing/oranging-up over time?

    ReplyDelete
  26. Were these samples stored in the light, or in the dark? This looks like "primary yellowing", which results from storage in the dark, and would be expected to bleach out with a few days of exposure to light.

    ReplyDelete
  27. Very nice work!

    ReplyDelete
  28. Thank you so much, you saved me a lot of grief !

    ReplyDelete
  29. Hello - As a founder of Gamblin Artists Colors Co., I spent two decades watching white oil colors dry. I appreciate your patient work and your sharing it. I cannot offer any info on Gamblin Artists’ paints. Since selling the company six years ago, I no longer know about their methods or materials.

    In general, here are a few more variables that result in color variation among binders:

    Driers. Titanium White does not make as fast a drying paint as lead white. A small measure of combined metals salts is added to make sure paint layers are dry within seven days. While not much, any drier influences whites as they age, especially zinc, which is the most transparent. Before using zinc inside your paint layers, read current research on pigment at http://www.amien.org/

    If you add driers, use cobalt drier and buy fresh every year.

    Binder temp. Vegetable oils must be modified to make paint binders. Gently heating the binder allows for a quicker uptake of pigment and a higher pigment load. “Gently heating” is not a precise manufacturing term. All paintmakers are very careful about heating vegetable oils. We have been know through history as “masters of the black arts” and required to refine oil far away from town. Linseed oil explodes at approx. 500 degrees F. The higher the temperature the darker the oil.

    Storage. If you open a tube of artists’ paint and find yellowed binder under the cap, blot the oil up and discard. Adding binder that has separated can increase tendency of oil paints to yellow.

    If you take your chart now and place in full sunlight, you will probably see brightness return to your paint layers.

    Turpentine. If you choose to use this hot solvent, be sure to buy only water-clear, well recognized brands of turp. American pine turp causes yellowing because it contains as much as 20% resiny debris due to lack of refining. Don’t shake a can of American pine turp because that distributes the debris throughout the solvent. Throw out bottom third of solvent in the can.

    Best, Martha

    ReplyDelete
  30. Dear Martha - Great info. Thanks so much. Would you mind if I post an entry with your comments? - JL

    ReplyDelete
  31. I recently bought a tube of Gamblin Radiant White which has a safflower oil binder.

    ReplyDelete
  32. Dear Jonathan,
    thank you for your page, for your tests.

    I am looking for this problematics the whole time in the literature, internet...
    I saw the producer use
    - alkali refined linseedoil
    - poppy oil
    - wallnut oil
    - safflower oil

    I dont want to use poppy oil because of the shrinking of the volume over the time, bad surface etc.
    I dont want to use the wallnut oil because of the going rancid.
    And I was not sure if to use the acali refined linseed oil, or the safflower oil.
    I belived into the safflower oil, but I did´t see any remarks in the old literature (because it´s quite new thing), but it is not mentioned even in the book from Kurt Wehlte. (One of the art-materials bibles in Europe.)He mentions only poppy for these colours.
    Your test helped me to decide for the binder for the whites and blues.
    What is your meening about 1-2% of beewax into the binder.
    Thank you once more - i saw the videos too it´s great!
    Thanks Tomas

    ReplyDelete
  33. Thank you for this eye-opening test of commercial whites. To really get a better idea of what is going on here one would need to lay out the exact formulations from all of the manufacturers. Zinc and Titanium dry slowly in all of the oils and driers will be found in just about all the paints included, especially the ones with paler oils such as safflower and poppy. Its hard to say why the Grumbacher SF and Lukas titanium whites remained so white. Paler oils and minimal driers added? I would have speculated those brands have the most stabilizers added. Does this make a difference? My submissions for the next test(s) are; BLOCKX titanium-titanzinc-flake-mixed white , REMBRANDT titanium white(regular and 'linseed' oil types) HOLBEIN titanium white -quick-dry - silver white - foundation white , SCHMINCKE norma opaque white , CHARVIN titanium white - titanium zinc white ...........The Blockx/Charvin/Holbein(holbein foundation w. is linseed) are poppy whites. Would be interesting to see how they hold up.

    ReplyDelete
  34. Oxidation of the drying oil is the problem with yellowing, that can be controlled by either stopping it before the yellowing starts or speeding up the drying time of the paint film or protecting it....controling the oxidation. What the artist who paints in oils needs is a oil paint that is between oil and acrylic that sets up almost as fast as acrylics...the old masters especialy Rembrandt, Rubens, Titian and others had such a paint, was there a secret, no...there is a natural substance that is very close to acrylic spectrographically that the old masters used in small amounts in thier paints, especially white oil colors... it cannot be detected even now with science...it was very expensive, lasts almost forever (a glue was used on a 2,000 year old Roman helmet were a small amount of this substance was present and was found to be still stringy when a solvent was used to dissolve it and it hardened back again good as new after 2,000 years...when the solvent evaporated) this substance is absolutely clear...and when a small amount of another natural product that was used by painters for two millennium or longer is added...one can have master quality paint like Rembrandt or Rubens and can paint with ease, the colors will be more beautiful, easier to draw with, be strong no matter how thin, even in a wash like water color... if you know how the masters mixed thier colors and why...or if larger amounts of this product is added to the XXXXX which is then mixed into colors made with any of the common drying oils...raw or thickened no matter...although raw is better and easier...Italian or Northern Europe-walnut, poppy or linseed, even safflower oils... one can paint like the Italians such as Titian with ease or Rubens...Rembrandt is another story his crude painting technique is very hard to master...the old masters hid nothing there was no secret for thier paints or how they painted...how they mixed thier colors is another matter...this they hid from the buyers for good reason...figure it out you already know based on your knowledge of the products available to the old masters...however there was a secret of color mixing...which you should also know if you think about it...hint, the masters were business men and were cheap cutting costs where they could...an example if you will, white lead pigment sold to the masters and also to boat and decorative wall painters was often cut with white flour as it was cheaper then pure white lead pigment...recently some have found flour in Rembrandt white paint layers and assume that it was a secret ingredient...it was not but only a fact that the master bought inferior white pigment..who would know...more profit for the seller of the white pigment usually a middle man...why do I know this...there was an art market, before modern science...which is no more because of easy detection...these are things which I was never taught at the Maryland Institute College of Art...hell no one there knew how to paint in oils, I wasted four years there getting a degree when all I had to do was study a few months with a 90 year old master restorer and art forger in London...his income depended on knowing how the masters painted...and it kept him out of jail I suppose...

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. did they use chalk and other calcium based compounds?

      Delete
    2. He never answered... He, he he, It seems that this ultramysterious substance cannot be named. I suppose it is just for sale? Personnally, I need not any secret additive to copy old masters'wet in wet effects with or without blending strokes in the same session, according to your needs. Just very simple grinding work with the basic ingredients that modern analyses can now easily detect in paint layers from the masters...

      Delete
  35. Nice. I have a similar tester board on my studio wall. About 15 years old now.

    The clear winner--Lefranc & Bourgeous Titanium White (in poppy oil, I believe). It is absolutely white. Very close to a swatch of Golden Titanium Acrylic nearby) If I want an undiluted pure white in my painting I would use that.

    The worst was Grumbacher flake. But on the whole I'd say all the paints (Zinc, Titanium, Flake) have yellowed to a kind of antique golden white with no clear winners or losers. Winsor & Newton Cremnitz might be the whitest of the lead based paints.

    Old Holland Cremnitz remains my absolute favourite white to use.

    ReplyDelete
  36. This is all very interesting John. If the binder is the culprit for yellowing, then I think I am happy to be LeFranc Titanium White. It has a safflower binder. I really like LeFranc's white!

    Thanks for doing this test and sharing it! Much appreciated!

    ReplyDelete
  37. I did a very small test about a year ago using the whites in my box...Gamblin Flake White Replacement; Gamblin Radiant White; and a Winton Titanium. Today the Flake is VERY yellowed, the Radiant (with safflower binder) nearly as bad and the Winton Titanium looks like new. I am very disappointed with the Radiant White; I was pulling for it.

    ReplyDelete
  38. Excellent, thank you very much.
    If you get the inclination, could you add Art Spectrum to the list. Titanium white number 2 (thicker than #1). It is bound with safflower.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. hi ron have you seen www.tadspurgeon.com and his textbook. this info puts paid to all these questions about various oils_see his website because modern manufacturers use the cheapest versions of ''refined '' oils and they certainly don't have the time to process the oils themselves.
      costs would be too much.

      Delete
  39. Thank you for posting this! It inspired me to do a blog post of my own white tests from 2004. The results were very similar to yours. http://lindaschweitzer.blogspot.com/2012/07/the-white-test-after-8-years.html

    ReplyDelete
  40. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  41. LeFranc whites are made with Soybean oil, unless they have changed the formulation -I own paint that states this right on the tube. When they changed/revamped the line this last time around they did away with indicating the binder on the tubes unfortunately. Linseed, poppy, safflower, and soy were used depending on the pigment and intent.
    What should also be taken into account in determining yellowing/discoloration beyond the type of binder as well as the type of drier and quantity used, is the 'inert' whites that are part of the formulation in these paints. Even if a manufacturer does not extend their paints with 'cheap fillers', and 'only use pure pigments'... Blanc Fixe/Barite, Calcium Carbonate, Gypsum, and other white pigments, will be found singularly or in combination in our whites -even in the lead whites- as part of making a useful paint that has the right rheology/working properties. Barite for example will dry to a buff or even yellowish color but is bone white while its still wet. Feedback from fellow painter's experiences and informal tests are appreciated here, as is the effort and results of this Linton blog post.

    ReplyDelete
  42. Can you test Williamsburg's Titanium White. They have been bought by Golden a few years ago and now make that paint with an Alykid refined linseed oil. Curious how that holds up.
    And I have another request... Can you maybe do a test of Lukas's 1812 paint to test it's durability? I am worried that this paint's film is too soft to hold up for many years. I have noticed that paintings I have made with this paint are way way way more delicate than my older paintings that were made with other paint brands that had linseed oil as the binder. Also Lukas adds wax in addition to the safflower oil and this might be the culprit also.

    ReplyDelete
  43. jonathan: thanks for this very useful site!
    ❄ learning on xmas! ❄

    ReplyDelete
  44. Which paints were the ones that dried for 5 years and which are the paints that dried for only 2 years? Or did I misunderstand what you were talking about when you said that you decided to include different brands and now it's been two years?

    Either way, thanks for posting this.

    ReplyDelete
  45. Oil paint is hilarious, it just doesn't work! I have been using it for 20 plus years and am constantly amazed at its shortcomings. The compromises that have to be made are frustrating to say the least. Poppy oil doesn't yellow but takes forever to dry and is brittle as heck. Linseed oil flexible yet yellowing. And half the time it seems like the only thing the paint will fully adhere to are my clothes.
    As a result of many frustrations over the years I am always appreciative of some body doing these sort of tests, lord knows the paint manufactures don't seem to! I have done some tests with various mediums in whites but hadn't tested the whites themselves.
    Anyway thanks because I looked at your test just in time to cancel an order which included 10 150ml tubes of Gamblin Whites and replaced them with Lucas.

    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  46. could you test williamsburg oil paint?

    great test! very helpful!

    ReplyDelete
  47. Looks like an expensive study. We are all in your dept. Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  48. Hi Jonathan,

    First of all, thanks for doing this; making this kind of research public is very important.
    The 17th-century painters used to add calcium carbonate to their whites. This did several things: it took up some of the excess oil (paint requires more oil to grind it than it needs to bind it), it makes the paint more opaque, it acts as a siccative (although this characteristic wasn't needed with lead white) and, most important, it counteracts to a large extent the paint's turning yellow with time.
    I have always used W&N titanium white—ground in safflower oil—with the addition of calcium carbonate. Because of titanium's slow drying, I add cobalt drier. The lights in tests of mine painted 35 years ago remain unyellowed.
    An interesting aside—recent tests of 17th-century paintings have shown that ground glass (smalt) and/or azurite were used in the (mostly brown) half-tones and the darks. Both of these contain cobalt.The old masters did not use cobalt in the lights because their white was lead white. I believe that they would have used titanium, modified with calcium carbonate and cobalt drier, if titanium would have been available to them—this mixture exactly reproduces the paint quality of Rembrandt, van Dyck, Hals, et al. Titanium white is much deanser, more opaque and stable than lead white because of it's crystaline structure.

    Michael John Angel A.R.C.L.M.
    Director of Studies
    Angel Academy of Art, Florence
    www.angelartschool.com

    ReplyDelete
  49. I usually just look at the cruddy build up under and around the cap of my oil paints. That will tell you what color they will be in a few years.

    ReplyDelete
  50. Jonathan, you made a wonderful work with these tests. I hope you will keep on testing paints like that. I confirm that the Old Holland Cremnitz white is a very good compromise. Not the whiter, but given the toughness, paint durability, application properties, behaviout during mixing with other colors, and drying properties, definitly the best compromise in my opinion.
    I also grind my own whites with various white leads. And now, after a few years grinding, my prefered oïl for this purpose is walnut. It gives paints which are really better than the beautiful poppy oïl. The latter has a bad reputation of forming brittle layers after its too long drying, and this is perfectly right.

    ReplyDelete
  51. Hi Jonathan, Great post. I hope you will test some of the Natural Pigments lead whites that are gaining popularity. I am using the Lead White and love that when it tints flesh tones it doesn't also cool them. I hear that the lead white 2 is also nice to work with. My old standard is Rembrandt Titanium white, not the transparent. I sure hope it does better. Thanks for all this.

    ReplyDelete
  52. PLEEEEEASE will you post this on Youtube???? Even just the photos alone will help a LOT of people!!!
    Please will you post this in video form? It would be a tremendous gift to so many hard working struggling artists, trying to learn. Thank you!!!!

    ReplyDelete
  53. I haven't read every word on this website, nor every comment, so forgive me if I missed a statement relative to my comment, which is: did you store all of the samples as they were drying in such a way that they would all receive an equal amount of the same type of light over the test period? If for example, an extreme case: if you stored some in relative darkness and others where sunlight could reach them, then there is an amount of uncertainty in your results since it is well known that sunlight will bleach out some of the yellowing of linseed oil.

    ReplyDelete
  54. Never mind. I see now that the samples were small and all were applied to the same panel, therefore I assume they all received the same quantity and type of light . Sorry for this careless oversight.

    Same anonymous dated August 20, 2014 9:19 am

    ReplyDelete
  55. It is interesting, though, that Gamblin Radiant White IS made with safflower oil. At least according to their website it is.

    Same ole Anonymous

    ReplyDelete
  56. I have been working on a show of "white" paintings for over a year. I have been using Gamblin oil paints for almost 30 years. I have recently contacted them because I have had paintings returned because of how badly they have yellowed. I have been using their titanium-zinc white, in safflower oil and the radiant white in safflower oil. Both have yellowed terribly, very much like your test results. Thanks for doing all of this. I wish I had read it two years ago.

    ReplyDelete
  57. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  58. I'm waiting with baited breath for the 10 year followup, which would be right about now. I really hope you do one!

    ReplyDelete
  59. I am amaizing about white-test. It's also comprises me a lot of useful facts-Thanks for valuable informative year of yore.Really enjoyed reading first to last.If you have time please visit my MIL-STD 461 page and please leave comments.

    ReplyDelete
  60. Nicely written-Great information.Thanks for sharing it with us.Please also visit my emi testing lab page and let me know what you think.

    ReplyDelete
  61. This is very helpful, since all whites are not created equal. But is there an entry for Winsor Newton Soft Mixing White (my white of choice)? If I missed it, please let me know. Thanks..

    ReplyDelete
  62. This is great Jonathan, thank you! It would be good to also have the actual pigments listed on the tube included in the info as well, PW1, PW4, PW6 etc. Because from my experience sometimes Zinc is listed as a component of Titanium white and I have also found a white that is titled as 'lead' white that has no PW1 in it!

    ReplyDelete
  63. Thankyou so much for this research - it is so helpful. I was wondering if you had come across Art Spectrum Paints - they are artist quality paints commonly used in Australia and recommended for use by our art schools. I believe the pigments for most of their colours are ground in alkali refined linseed oil but they use safflower oil for white pigments

    ReplyDelete
  64. Thankyou so much for this research - it is so helpful. I was wondering if you had come across Art Spectrum Paints - they are artist quality paints commonly used in Australia and recommended for use by our art schools. I believe the pigments for most of their colours are ground in alkali refined linseed oil but they use safflower oil for white pigments

    ReplyDelete
  65. Thank you for providing your results. Can you tell us if they dried in darkness or light? Also, if placed in a sunny window for a few days or a week, do the samples lighten up?

    ReplyDelete
  66. Thank you for providing your results. Can you tell us if they dried in darkness or light? Also, if placed in a sunny window for a few days or a week, do the samples lighten up?

    ReplyDelete
  67. Jonathan, thank you! You are awesome for doing this. I'd like to request:
    Michael Harding Titanium White No. 1
    Williamsburg Titanium (Regular and Safflower)

    ReplyDelete
  68. How about all Michael Harding whites!

    ReplyDelete
  69. do you want to study in abroad today or in the next intake. we are the best and top rated study abroad consultancies in india with good visa assurance.we help you in filing the f1 visa for you in very less time. we are also help you with information needed to apply for the college university. foreign education consultants in hyderabad

    ReplyDelete
  70. It is remarkable blog. I wanted to learn such type of the things that I have got from here at one platform. Thanks. great post to read

    ReplyDelete
  71. This is truly a decent and educational, containing all data furthermore greatly affects the new innovation...
    http://www.testextextile.com/product/washing-fastness-tester-tf418/

    ReplyDelete
  72. how about all the grumbacher whites? so far i see: 1-titanium original; 2-unbleached titanium; 3-tit white soft; 4-m g underpainting; 5-superba; 6-academay; 7-water mixable. wonder why so many? (i need the strongest white ever). thanks

    ReplyDelete
  73. Thanks for your information. it was really very helpfull..
    Friends of education

    ReplyDelete
  74. Would love a 2018 update on this if possible.

    ReplyDelete
  75. It's very useful. Xenon Lamp Weather Resistance Test Chamber, to determine the colorfastness, aging resistance of textiles, plastics, rubber products or materials by objecting to the simulated conditions of nature weather (daylight, rain, temperature, and humidity, etc.). I would like to give you some help, welcome to visit on https://www.testextextile.com/product/water-cooled-light-weather-fastness-tester-tf422/

    ReplyDelete
  76. Such kind of article helps me gain some skills. Thankyou for sharing.
    https://bestproreviews.com/best-air-fryers/

    ReplyDelete
  77. Thanks for your information. Like see find more about this kind of test

    ReplyDelete
  78. Great and helpful tests; thank you. I made some notes for my nest purchase of "White".

    ReplyDelete
  79. Shock Testing Machines of various capacities to be used in the design and destructive testing of components, hybrids, circuits, and complete assemblies. These machines are used testing a variety of products from Aerospace, Millitary, Industrial and consumer

    ReplyDelete
  80. Thanks for sharing, there are more different kinds of tests which can be performed.

    ReplyDelete
  81. Thanks for the great post! I would be interested in how Holbein Titanium White would fair. I use it when I want a truly opaque white that kills color.

    ReplyDelete
  82. Thanks for the great post! I would be interested in how Holbein Titanium White would fair. I use it when I want a truly opaque white that kills color.

    ReplyDelete
  83. Thanks for the great post! I would be interested in how Holbein Titanium White would fair. I use it when I want a truly opaque white that kills color.

    ReplyDelete
  84. Thanks for the great post! I would be interested in how Holbein Titanium White would fair. I use it when I want a truly opaque white that kills color.

    ReplyDelete
  85. Thanks for the great post! I would be interested in how Holbein Titanium White would fair. I use it when I want a truly opaque white that kills color.

    ReplyDelete
  86. Wow, amazing blog layout! How lengthy have you been running
    a blog for? you make running a blog glance easy. The full glance of your website is great, as neatly as the content material!
    온라인경마
    경마사이트

    ReplyDelete
  87. The information you provided is very useful, thank you very much for sharing useful information with us. You can apply for a Turkey visa online. You can get your Turkey Visa in just 1 hour by selecting the express processing type. It only takes 5 minutes to apply for an electronic visa Turkey. Apply Online.

    ReplyDelete
  88. This is a wonderful inspiring article. I am practically satisfied with your great work. You have really put together extremely helpful data. Keep it up.. Are you planning to visit Kenya?For this, you need to fill the Kenya Visa Application Form and pay the kenya e visa fees online.

    ReplyDelete
  89. Highly appreciable regarding the uniqueness of the content. Ukraine visa fees are updated now. And now you can easily known about all the updated in ukraine evisa.

    ReplyDelete
  90. That's a great article! The neatly organized content is good to see. Can I quote a blog and write it on my blog? My blog has a variety of communities including these articles. Would you like to visit me later? keo nhacai


    ReplyDelete
  91. Heya i am for the first time here. I found this board and I to find It truly helpful & it helped me out much. I am hoping to give something again and aid others such as you helped me.


    온라인카지노
    바카라사이트
    카지노사이트

    ReplyDelete
  92. This is very useful article. I will connect it back to your site though

    바카라사이트
    온라인카지노
    카지노

    ReplyDelete
  93. I constantly spent my half an hour to read this web site’s content daily along with a cup
    of coffee.


    스포츠토토
    토토사이트
    토토

    ReplyDelete
  94. Pretty portion of content. I simply stumbled upon your weblog and in accession capital
    to say that I acquire in fact loved account your weblog posts.
    Anyway I will be subscribing to your feeds
    or even I success you access consistently fast.


    토토
    스포츠중계
    스포츠토토티비

    ReplyDelete

  95. You have performed a great job on this article. It’s very precise and highly qualitative. 슬롯머신777사이트

    ReplyDelete
  96. This is the right blog for anyone who wants to find out about this topic. You realize so much its almost hard to argue with you (not that I actually would want…HaHa). You definitely put a new spin on a topic thats been written about for years. Great stuff, just great! ufa

    ReplyDelete
  97. Found your post interesting to read. I can’t wait to see your post soon. Good Luck for the upcoming update. This article is really very interesting and effective. 카지노사이트

    ReplyDelete
  98. UFA AUTO789.COM Sign up for free, 50% bonus, with many special promotions for all members, we are the best online slots, whether it's an instant bonus of 50%, promotion 300, get 400, promotion 39, get 100, get in Apply for the first time And the right to play games, receive many prizes from UFA BET, deposit-withdraw, automatic system, do not have to inform the staff do not send slip.
    ufa auto

    ReplyDelete
  99. Positive site, where did u come up with the information on this posting? I'm pleased I discovered it though, ill be checking back soon to find out what additional posts you include. หวยลาว

    ReplyDelete
  100. Thanks for sharing this information. Foreign travelers who want a tourist visa India can now apply for a visa online.

    ReplyDelete
  101. I really enjoyed reading this fantastic blog.. Foreign travelers who wish to travel to Azerbaijan need to apply for e visa to Azerbaijan online that provide the fast and secure visa services.

    ReplyDelete
  102. Excellent information on your site, thanks for the platform to allow us make comments. nuoteku isvezimas

    ReplyDelete
  103. On my site you'll see comparable writings, compose what you think. decking contractors

    ReplyDelete
  104. Great article, Thanks for writing about that. It’s really helpful for me. Keep it up your writing. Dovanos vaikams

    ReplyDelete
  105. It's very nice what you're sharing with your audience. I have read your article and I think it's very nice. You can apply for an India visa urgent by clicking the link we just provided. Thanks for adding value to the post.


    ReplyDelete
  106. Excelent test, extremely helpful. Old Holland generally appears to look great, was that safflower as well? I'd be keen on how pecan oil acts, as I was considering utilizing Michael Harding' Cremnitz white in pecan. | sod installer

    ReplyDelete
  107. 메이저사이트April 9, 2022 at 3:06 AM

    is one very interesting post. 메이저사이트I like the way you write and I will bookmark your blog to my favorites.


    ReplyDelete
  108. You put a huge effort into this one! I appreciate your hard work since it requires a lot of patience. Greetings from https://www.cleaningservicesintoronto.com/house-cleaning-richmond-hill

    ReplyDelete
  109. Thank you blogger, I am very excited after reading the amazing blog on this website. If you are planning to visit Vietnam, Then you should definitely read about Vietnam. The Vietnam government website visa is a great solution for Vietnamese visa . Because it solves many doubts. And I would suggest this is one the best websites to read about Vietnam.

    ReplyDelete
  110. Thanks for sharing. This article is very informative. I am waiting for your update. Indian visa for US citizens, Indian e-Visa is issued for USA citizens under the following 5 categories. More info about Indian visas you can read through our website.

    ReplyDelete
  111. pg slot easy deposit, withdrawal and high quality system Make players confident that Your data will never leak. Or definitely fall out Because we have a standardized system that is safe for all types of use. Ak88king

    ReplyDelete
  112. I think this is an informative post and it is very useful and knowledgeable. therefore, I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article :D 먹튀검증


    ReplyDelete
  113. I can't believe I've never been to this site before, but after going through some of the posts I realized it's new to me. Anyhow, I'm glad to have found it. I would just like to say thanks for a fantastic post. From all over the world, visitors can fill out a Turkey visa application online and receive their visa by email.

    ReplyDelete
  114. Such a very informative article... Is that the same thing that I am trying to find... The process of e visa Turkey is easy and simple, the application of Turkey evisa is easy to fill out for everyone if you want to apply for visa check out the page.

    ReplyDelete
  115. This Article is Awesome. It’s help me a lot. Sir,Please keep up your good work. We always with you and Waiting for your new interesting articles.
    sienu griovimas bute

    ReplyDelete
  116. Like the post which you shared here and thanks for sharing this with us.
    darbastaliai

    ReplyDelete
  117. I enjoyed the post you shared here, and thank you for sharing it with us. buhalterine apskaita

    ReplyDelete
  118. nice article, waiting for your another :) odontologijos klinika

    ReplyDelete
  119. I read this post your post so nice and very informative post thanks for sharing this post
    electrical in fresno

    ReplyDelete
  120. Thank you for sharing this pretty cool post! best movers san diego

    ReplyDelete
  121. Thanks for the content of this post. all the best! sliding glass door replacement miami

    ReplyDelete
  122. Good website! I really love that it is easy on my eyes and the data is well written. sprinkler repair orlando

    ReplyDelete
  123. It is a wonderful opportunity to visit such a site and I am delighted. Thank you very much for giving me this opportunity. interneto svetainiu kurimas

    ReplyDelete
  124. Thanks for sharing this with us like the post you shared here. statybiniu atlieku isvezimas vilnius

    ReplyDelete
  125. The article you wrote is very interesting and easy to read and understand. I hope your audience enjoys it. US citizens who wish to visit Turkey and need a Turkey visa for US citizens can apply online at the website linked above.

    ReplyDelete
  126. First of all, thank you for your post. Your posts are neatly organized with the information I want, so there are plenty of resources to reference. I bookmark this site and will find your posts frequently in the future. Thanks again
    car recovery companies

    ReplyDelete
  127. I enjoyed reading these articles they are so varied and full of different opinions. We tralo paslaugos will continue to view these comments and keep up to date with new stories coming on.

    ReplyDelete
  128. Thank you for sharing this pretty cool post! Piano moving service

    ReplyDelete
  129. Thanks for the content of this post. all the best! auto dazymas

    ReplyDelete
  130. The article you composed is exceptionally intriguing and simple to peruse and comprehend. I trust your crowd appreciates it. Your posts are perfectly coordinated with the data I need, so there are a lot of assets to reference. Securities Fraud Lawsuit

    ReplyDelete
  131. You have talked some decent data regarding the matter, are you attempting to do a FAQ about this issue from now on, as I have a few additional questions that will be normal to different perusers, visit here

    ReplyDelete
  132. Gratitude for sharing this decent blog. Furthermore, gratitude for the data. Will get a kick out of the chance to peruse more from this blog. https://andersonqpew655.hpage.com/post1.html

    ReplyDelete
  133. I read this post your post so nice and very informative post thanks for sharing this post.
    best gift for christmas

    ReplyDelete
  134. nice post . Thank you for posting something like this.
    companies in alpharetta ga

    ReplyDelete
  135. Great informative, as always from you. I very much appreciate the timestamps, when I want to come back to a certain topic. And I love the montage of your content still!
    wood world map

    ReplyDelete
  136. This is a fantastic website , thanks for sharing. dienines uzuolaidos


    ReplyDelete
  137. Comment with your Google account if you’d like to be able to manage your comments in the future. If you comment anonymously, you won’t b

    ReplyDelete
  138. Comment with your Google account if you’d like to be able to manage your comments in the future. If you comment anonymously, you won’t be https://permisdeconducereromanesc.com

    ReplyDelete
  139. ment with your Google account if you’d like to be able to manage your comments in the future. If you comment anonymously, you won’
    https://carnetdeconducirespanolexpres.com

    ReplyDelete
  140. Oh my god! 5 years of waiting for the single post. But that's an outstanding art from you. Brilliant. Time, patience everything is with you and mainly love towards your work. Take a bow to this hard working guy. Never ever read a blog post like this. Amazing blog post. Thanks for sharing. Keep painting and keep sharing it with us. DUI Lawyer Hanover VA

    ReplyDelete
  141. If you're planning a trip to Guyana, it's important to check whether you need to apply for a Guyana visa based on your nationality and the purpose of your visit. To Apply for Guyana Visa, you'll need to gather several documents, including a completed visa application form, a valid passport with at least six months validity, a recent passport-sized photograph, and proof of onward travel.

    ReplyDelete
  142. Buy NCLEX without Exam
    Buy SSN
    buy US Driver’s License

    ReplyDelete
  143. In the bustling streets of New York, one cannot overlook the importance of a reliable security company. The safety and protection they provide are invaluable in a city that never sleeps. Hiring a reputable security company in New York ensures peace of mind, knowing that trained professionals are diligently safeguarding your premises. Their expertise in surveillance, access control, and risk assessment makes them an indispensable asset. Whether it's securing residential properties, corporate offices, or high-profile events, a trusted security company in New York is an essential partner in maintaining a secure environment. Don't compromise on safety—invest in a reliable security company that understands the unique challenges of the Big Apple.

    ReplyDelete
  144. Your information is incredibly valuable to us. Delay In ETIAS Launch; Implementation Pushed To 2024. Originally scheduled to take effect this year, the delay comes as a result of complex technicalities and administrative challenges.

    ReplyDelete
  145. I think everyone can benefit from the knowledge in this article. Kenya Travel Advice, for travelers planning a journey to Kenya, before embarking on the trip, check the latest travel advisories issued by your government to stay informed about any potential risks or security concerns in specific regions.

    ReplyDelete
  146. I thank you so much for your unmistakable generosity in sharing this treasure of invaluable information. Kia Orana, Cook Islands explorers! Dreaming of India? India eVisa Requirements for Cook Islands – you can apply for an e-Visa online. Whether it's for leisure, business, or health reasons, this digital visa makes the process simple. Just ensure your passport is valid for six months, have a recent photo, and a payment method for the processing fee. Get ready for an exciting Indian journey!

    ReplyDelete
  147. What’s up everyone, Kindly keep sharing valuable articles. Feel free checking out this information. Explore Ethiopia with these top Ethiopian Best SIM Cards Tourists can use for calling and Data for tourists! Stay connected with affordable calling and data plans to make your journey memorable and hassle-free.

    ReplyDelete
  148. Hi there! I find your captivating and educational content really enjoyable. Can't wait for more of your upcoming posts! Mexico citizens planning an Egypt visit can apply for an Egypt Visa. Familiarize yourself with requirements for a smooth Egypt Visa for Mexico Citizens process before traveling.

    ReplyDelete
  149. Thank you for this amazing blog see here

    ReplyDelete
  150. Your comment is well-structured and captures the essence of the blog post concisely. Well done! KSA Visa on Arrival: A convenient option for eligible travelers to obtain a visa upon arrival in Saudi Arabia.

    ReplyDelete
  151. Your content is a source of inspiration and knowledge for many, including me. Relax and unwind amidst the picturesque beauty of Mussoorie. Nestled in the serene foothills of the Himalayas, this hill station is a perfect getaway. Enjoy stunning vistas of lush greenery, cascading waterfalls, and the snow-capped peaks of the Himalayan range. Stroll along the Mall Road, visit Kempty Falls, and explore the colonial-era architecture. Mussoorie promises a tranquil escape for nature lovers and those seeking rejuvenation.

    ReplyDelete
  152. It's wonderful that you're willing to share these with us. I'm enthusiastic about joining the event in the future, as this topic resonates with me. Lower Income Requirements For Colombia Digital Nomad Visa 2023

    ReplyDelete
  153. Your blogs are really good and interesting. It is very great and informative. The content is both captivating and enlightening, making me a returning reader seeking more.
    divorce lawyers fairfax va

    ReplyDelete
  154. Your blog post is a literary gem, each paragraph a facet reflecting the brilliance of profound insights. The eloquence in your prose is a masterful artisan, sculpting intricate patterns of wisdom. Navigating your words feels like exploring a treasure trove, leaving readers enchanted by the richness of enlightenment.

    ReplyDelete
  155. Your blog continues to be a perpetual wellspring of delight, seamlessly blending invaluable insights with a concise and eloquent writing style. I am consistently amazed by the profound depth of your analysis and your adeptness at simplifying intricate concepts with remarkable ease.

    ReplyDelete
  156. Your blog post fascinated me with its innovative perspectives and articulate presentation. The way you dissected the topic showcased a sharp intellect and deep understanding. I resonated deeply with your insights and found myself pondering your thought-provoking points. E visa turkey Australia the Turkey Visa is a convenient online solution for Australian travelers planning to visit Turkey. It streamlines the visa application process, offering swift approval and easy access for tourism or business purposes. With just a few clicks, travelers can secure their travel authorization, ensuring a smooth entry into Turkey.

    ReplyDelete
  157. Your blog post transcends the realm of mere information, weaving a tapestry of vivid landscapes that ignite the imagination and illuminate the mind. With prose as elegant as a masterful brushstroke, you effortlessly navigate the intricacies of the subject matter, leaving readers bathed in enlightenment and inspiration. Your analysis delves deep, revealing layers of insight, while the artistry in your words creates an immersive experience that lingers long after the final paragraph. It's a testament to your prowess, not just in conveying knowledge, but in evoking emotions and sparking profound contemplation.

    ReplyDelete
  158. "The White Test: 5 Years in the Making" hints at a significant endeavor or project that has been in development for an extended period. It suggests a meticulous process of planning, refining, and executing over five years to achieve a particular goal or outcome. The phrase may evoke anticipation and curiosity about the results or conclusions of this long-term effort, indicating a sense of accomplishment and dedication to the task at hand. elf bar india

    ReplyDelete
  159. Your blog post was both informative and engaging! I was impressed by your ability to tackle complex topics with clarity and precision, making them accessible to readers of all backgrounds. Your writing style is captivating, and I found myself drawn in from the very first sentence. It's evident that you're passionate about this subject, and your enthusiasm is infectious. Thank you for sharing your insights—I'm already looking forward to your next post.

    ReplyDelete
  160. In your blog post, you adeptly merge profound insights with engaging storytelling, taking readers on a journey through a realm of wisdom. Your ability to simplify intricate concepts is truly impressive.

    ReplyDelete
  161. Blogging regularly is part of my routine, and I genuinely admire your content's quality. This captivating piece has sparked my interest. I've ensured to save your site in my bookmarks and keep myself informed with fresh insights, typically on a weekly basis. Additionally, I've subscribed to your RSS feed. How much is visa from Egypt to Singapore? Determining the cost of a visa from Egypt to Singapore is crucial for travel planning. Prices vary based on visa type and processing time. Conduct thorough research for accurate information.

    ReplyDelete